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인칭 대명사, 의문 대명사 Personal/interrogative pronouns

 


 

인칭 대명사 Personal pronouns

 

1인칭 대명사 The first person pronouns

나/내(나의) [I, me, my] You use 나/내(나의)/우리 when talking with friends, siblings or anyone who's younger than you. You can possibly use 나 to parents and grandparents, but you could be considered as an impolite person.

 

Examples)

1. 여동생아, 나랑 같이 노래하자. Little sister, sing with me.

2. 셀린(아), 내 장갑 봤어? Celine, did you see my gloves?

 

저/제(저의) [I, me, my] 저/제(저의)/저희 are the humble form of 나. 저/제/저희 are used with listeners who are older than you, professors, strangers, colleagues and bosses, etc.

 

Examples)

1. 엄마, 저 (집에) 왔어요. Mom, I’m home.

2. 선생님, 제가 꽃병을 깨트렸어요. Teacher, I broke the vase.

 

우리/저희 (our, we, us, my) 우리/저희 are the first person plural pronoun and the first person possessive pronoun. 우리 is the casual form, and 저희 is the humble form of 우리.

 

Examples)

1. 우리 팀이 이겼다! Our team won!

2. 이 것은 우리 학교에요. This is my school.

3. 저희가 가방을 찾아 드릴게요. We will seek for your bag.

4. 저희를 찾고 계시나요? Are you looking for us?

 


 

2인칭 대명사 The second person pronouns

You must be very careful of using the second person pronouns. 너, 네, 너희(plural) can ONLY be used with children, friends and younger siblings. Koreans don't use these unless they know about the person. 당신, 당신의, 당신들(plural) is mostly used between spouses. But it is also in a polite way of saying 너.

The safest way is addressing people with their social positions. 사장님 (the president+님) 교수님 (the professor+님) You can also say 저.. 저기 or 저기요.. (uh..), 여기요 (here) to get the attention of a waiter/waitress. 실례지만 or 실례합니다만 (excuse me, but), or 죄송하지만 or 죄송합니다만 (I’m sorry, but), to get the second person’s attention.

 


 

3인칭 대명사 The third person pronouns

 

  This That That (over there)
He

이(이)

- this

그(이)

- that

저(이)

- that

이 사람

- this person

그 사람

- that person

저 사람

- that person

이 분

- this esteemed person

그 분

- that esteemed person

저 분

- that esteemed person

이 남자

- this man

그 남자

- that man

저 남자

- that man

She

그(녀)

- that

이 사람

- this person

그 사람

- that person

저 사람

- that person

이 (여자)분

- this esteemed person

그 (여자)분

- that esteemed person

저 (여자)분

- that esteemed person

이 여자

- this woman

그 여자

- that woman

저 여자

- that woman

They

이 들

- these

그 들

- those

저 들

- those

이 사람들

- these people

그 사람들

- thoes people

저 사람들

- those people

이 분들

- those esteemed people

그 분들

- those esteemed people

저 분들

- those esteemed people

 


 

얘(this person) / 걔(that person) / 쟤(that person over there) are used to point out someone who's younger than the speaker. 얘(네)들 / 걔(네)들 / 쟤(네)들 are the third person plural pronoun. Koreans usually use titles and kinship terms instead of the third person pronoun.

 

Examples)

1. 형(은) 어디에 있어요? Where is my older brother?

형(은) 도서관에 있어. He’s at the library.

 

2. 형(은) 언제 갔어요? When did he go?

형(은) 아까 갔어. He went a while ago.

 


 

의문 대명사 Interrogative pronouns

Korean has interrogative words that are similar to indefinite pronouns in English. The intonation determines whether they are used as question words or indefinite pronouns. If there is a rising intonation at the end of the sentence, the word is used as a question. If not, then the word functions as an indefinite pronoun.

 

누구 Who, Someone

 

Examples)

1. 누구 만났어? Who did you meet? / Did you meet someone?

누구 만났어. (I) met someone.

 

뭐 What, Something

 

Examples)

1. 뭐하고 있어? What are you doing? / Are you doing something?

뭐하고 있어. I'm doing something.

 

어디 Where, Somewhere

 

Examples)

1. 어디 가요? Where are you going? / Are you going somewhere?

어디 가요. (I) am going somewhere.

 

어떻게 How, Somehow

 

Examples)

1. 어떻게 할 거야? How are you going to do?

어떻게 할 거야. (I) am going to do somehow.

 

몇 How many, Some

 

Examples)

1. 차 몇 대 있어? How many cars do you have?

차 몇 대 있어. (I) have some (cars).

 

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